Understanding the Role of Methylation in Human Health and Research Studies Connecting It to the Development of Temperament and Adversity in Early Childhood

The methylation of specific gene sequences plays a critical role in human health. Methylation is one of the most essential metabolic functions of the body and is dependent upon a variety of enzymes. Adapting to stress and the challenges of life is an aspect that methylation provides the body and without adequate methylation of specific gene sequences, individuals cannot adapt effectively and will suffer the deleterious effects of accelerated aging. Methylation is a controlled transfer of a methyl group (one carbon and three hydrogen atoms) onto proteins, amino acids, enzymes, and DNA in every cell and tissue of the body to regulate healing, cell energy, genetic expression of DNA, liver detoxification, immunity, and neurology. Some of the symptoms of inadequate methylation manifest as the following diseases:

Cardiovascular Disease

Diabetes

Multiple Sclerosis

Psychiatric Disorders (bipolar, depression, addiction)

Chronic Inflammation

Neurotransmitter Imbalances

Abnormal Immune Function

Dementia

Autism

Fertility & Miscarriages

Cancer

Chronic Fatigue

Alzheimer’s

Down’s Syndrome

Pregnancy Problems

Medications such as birth control pills, NSAID’s, thiazide-type diuretics, calcium-channel blockers at preventing heart attacks, and antacids deplete these nutrients and consume massive quantities of methyl groups for proper detoxification. Heavy metal exposure, chronic infections, alcohol consumption, and heavy emotional stress also deplete methyl groups and put us at risk.

A research paper entitled Sex differences in associations between early adversity, child temperament, and behavior problems published in the International Journal of Behavioral Development found there may be an association between the following factors, predisposition of genetic make-up, adverse environment, the development of personality, and temperament, and the inherent biological indices of stress in children all of which may contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors and psychopathologies.

Validation for the interpretation of the research information is supported by other research studies suggesting the association between forms of adversity such as child maltreatment and abuse, traumatic life events such as loss of a parent, inherent biological indices of stress in children like methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and accelerated cellular aging, and behavior problems in children who exhibit internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies (SEE Parade et al., 2016; Ridout et al., 2019, for more information)

It has been suggested that more definitive studies need to be conducted in order to untangle the various factors believed to contribute to adverse outcomes of adversity in childhood such as; loss of a parent, separation from a parent, catastrophic event, neglect, maltreatment, and abuse. It has been suggested that longitudinal studies spanning multiple developmental periods (e.g., early childhood, middle adulthood, adolescence, and adulthood) be conducted to try and give a clearer picture and perhaps untangle how genetics and gender connect with adverse environments such as exposure to violence, maltreatment, neglect, and abuse.

One of the conclusions drawn from research on sex differences in associations between early adversity, child temperament, and behavior problems was the fact there may exist an interplay between genetic make-up through the methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and adverse environments AND that genetic differences contribute to the development of a child’s temperament and also plays a role in behavioral problems through internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies.

How do the methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and accelerated cellular aging play into electronic assaults, electronic harassment, electronic torture of the electronically targeted individual? It plays into this phenomenon by introducing stress-inducing stimuli in the form of electromagnetic assaults against the human body and the human brain to try and, what I can only describe as “correcting behavior”, “teaching a lesson” or “controlling behavior.” This is not the proper way to correct any type of psychopathology or disease in the individual in an uncontrolled environment, in “at-will attacks”, but is rather a way to ensure accelerated negative outcomes that encourage the destruction of the self or others (e.g., death and aggression). By utilizing 21st-century technologies that target and attack, at will, in uncontrolled environments, the use of electromagnetic targeted assaults that stimulate or sedate, in my opinion, poses a high degree of risk in aggravating maladaptive behaviors that were once shaped by early childhood adversity (e.g., maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect) and to which contribute to negative outcomes like self-inflicted suicide, state-assisted suicide, or exacerbated drug and alcohol abuse in the violence against these targeted subjects. Because the technology mimics the same method of maltreatment once experienced by the individual, people are at risk for falling back on maladaptive coping mechanisms or derangements in problem-solving to defend against its malevolence. In addition to introducing electronic stimuli that contribute to negative outcomes, manipulating environmental stress so as to induce fights, arguments and chaos contribute to negative outcomes as well. Outcomes like obesity, depression, type 2 diabetes, alcoholism, drug use, cardiovascular disease, and cancer because it exacerbates the body’s ability to defend against environmental stressors, of which the body may already be compromised because of the existence of methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and the accelerated cellular aging process in people with compromised methylation. Methylation contributes to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric disorders, abnormal immune function, and neurotransmitter imbalances. In short, the use of electronic stimulation and sedation is nothing more than barbaric torture that facilitates a rogue means to an end in eliminating a perceived threat/enemy. It is the product of malevolence.

Furthermore, the lower classes who are dependent on welfare and state-funded healthcare are the “cattle” that maintain the economic supply and demand for low-cost pharmaceutical drugs. Consumption of low-cost generic drugs like metformin (diabetes), hydrochlorothiazide (diuretic), metoprolol (blood pressure), and statin drugs (cholesterol-lowering) to name just a few, supply a portion of the upper-middle class providing payment and economic base. It supports a middle-man pharmaceutical industry. It’s a business, and it’s a disease of economics. It angers me that research in the field of psychology, psychiatry, and human development tells us where the greatest problems reside and those with political and economic power cannot find better ways to address these problems. Our communities are at risk of becoming underfunded and poorly served. If violence is on the rise, then likely, too, is the maltreatment of our future adults. With the advent of the phenomenon of the electronically targeted individual suffering electronic assaults, electronic harassment, electronic torture, isn’t it likely that this phenomenon is the result of externalizing psychopathologies based in the maltreatment, abuse, neglect, and adversity of early childhood experiences? Research tells me that the person carrying out these targeted assaults against me is probably between the age of 22 and 35. It also tells me that he is more likely male than female. That he most likely has dark hair and brown eyes, below-average height (5'6) or average height (5'9), and of average weight, is knowledgeable with electronics and hi-tech devices. It also tells me he most probably has a certain amount of disposable income, most likely lives alone, and has a certain amount of free time because he has trouble with intimate partner relationships but may have male friendships in which there may be a network of criminal activity. He most likely suffers from a personality disorder or some type of psychiatric syndrome. Personality traits like the Dark Triad or Narcissistic Personality Disorder come to mind. It’s likely too, that this man has already presented himself to me face-to-face, and I didn’t realize it. And that he probably has an above-average IQ and is enjoying the fact that I can’t pin anything on him because this form of assault provides absolutely no proof to support victimization. Other than the proof that I’ve gained a lot of weight, sometimes speak slower when electromagnetic sedation is turned on and as a result of its disorientating side effects, I will sometimes stumble and lose my balance void of any consumption of alcohol.

But, back to the research that I have uncovered. Research suggests there may be transactional causes to the development of not only temperament, but that adverse effects stimulate the methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and accelerated cellular aging. It has been suggested that the transactional interactions between mother-infant, mother-child, mother-adolescent, mother-young adult, and child in adulthood need to be evaluated and studied spanning the multiple developmental periods in order to understand the development of temperament and the internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies of behavior. It has also been suggested that the development of temperament plays a role in the interactions between mother and child and of which the methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphism may also be affected by adverse parenting. It has also been suggested that biological gender plays a role in the methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and accelerated cellular aging and that men (boys) may suffer at disproportional rates than women. Of course, there is other research in conflict with this finding and that research data suggests both men and women are equally affected. Of course, a clearer picture also needs to be provided in order to understand fully the effects of methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and accelerated cellular aging on gender, temperament, internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies of behavior, and various human diseases like bipolar, depression, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Further research is needed to analyze the connection between early infant adversity and the predisposition of methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and accelerated cellular aging. In the paper Sex differences in associations between early adversity, child temperament, and behavior problems state that sex differences in associations between early adversity, child temperament, and behavior problems: “….[sex differences in associations between early adversity, child temperament, and behavior problems] expected associations with theoretically relevant constructs including other forms of adversity such as child maltreatment, traumatic life events, biological indices of stress in children like the methylation of stress-sensitive genetic polymorphisms and accelerated cellular aging, and behavior problems in children such as internalizing and externalizing symptoms; (see Parade et al., 2016; Ridout et al., 2019, for more information.)”

The paper Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems stated that “childhood adversity is associated with the development of behavior problems as well as mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders in both childhood and adulthood.”

The research paper found the methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter is associated with internalizing psychopathologies and behavioral problems in preschoolers and that males had greater mean methylation at 1F exon 2 of the NR3C1 promoter region than females and that this finding was associated with internalizing behavior problems (psychopathologies).

The paper cites the following:

“Methylation of NR3C1 at exons 1D and 1F was positively associated with internalizing, but not externalizing, behavior problems. Furthermore, NR3C1 methylation mediated effects of early adversity on internalizing behavior problems. These results suggest that methylation of NR3C1 contributes to psychopathology in young children, and NR3C1 methylation from saliva DNA is salient to behavioral outcomes.”

In the paper, Childhood maltreatment, behavioral adjustment, and molecular markers of cellular aging in preschool-aged children: A cohort study, published in the journal Psychoneuroendocrinology, the objective of the study was to understand the major risk factors contributing to behavioral problems and poor physical health as well as poor mental health. It found that childhood maltreatment is a major risk factor for the development of behavioral problems and poor physical health as well as poor mental health. Accelerated cellular aging, through reduced telomere length and mitochondrial dysfunction, may be a mechanism underlying these associations.

The results of the paper found that maltreatment and other adverse experiences were significant positive predictors of both telomere length and mtDNAcn over time. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were also both significantly associated with telomere length, but only internalizing symptoms were associated with mtDNAcn (mitochondrial DNA).

So what does all this mean? It means there is an interaction between our genes and adverse early childhood experiences like the death of a parent, separation from a parent, homelessness, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and cataclysmic events such as countries at war. And that these interactions give rise to negative outcomes such as internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies of behavior. This is how we explain the phenomenon of the targeted individual suffering from electronic assaults, electronic harassment, and electronic torture. I’d just like to add that there is relatively no difference for the child when it comes to differences involving domestic violence, war-torn regions, and the effects of adverse parenting like physical and sexual abuse. This is why we have crime. This is why we have war.

The Primal Scene and Symbol Formation: Why war and the electronically targeted individual — Proclivities’ Principle Wisdom (wordpress.com)

Sources and References:

Coe, J., Micalizzi, L., Josefson, B., Parade, S., Seifer, R., & Tyrka, A. (2020). Sex differences in associations between early adversity, child temperament, and behavior problems. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 44(6), 490–504.

Tang L, Wang L, Ye H, Xu X, Hong Q, Wang H, Xu L, Bu S, Zhang L, Cheng J, Liu P, Ye M, Mai Y, Duan S. BCL11A gene DNA methylation contributes to the risk of type 2 diabetes in males. Exp Ther Med. 2014 Aug;8(2):459–463. doi: 10.3892/etm.2014.1783. Epub 2014 Jun 12. PMID: 25009601; PMCID: PMC4079426. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25009601/

Simar D, Versteyhe S, Donkin I, Liu J, Hesson L, Nylander V, Fossum A, Barrès R. DNA methylation is altered in B and NK lymphocytes in obese and type 2 diabetic human. Metabolism. 2014 Sep;63(9):1188–97. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.05.014. Epub 2014 Jun 4. PMID: 24996265. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24996265/

Anderson CM, Ralph JL, Johnson L, Scheett A, Wright ML, Taylor JY, Ohm JE, Uthus E. First-trimester vitamin D status and placental epigenomics in preeclampsia among Northern Plains primiparas. Life Sci. 2015 May 15;129:10–5. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2014.07.012. Epub 2014 Jul 19. PMID: 25050465. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25050465/

Guay SP, Légaré C, Houde AA, Mathieu P, Bossé Y, Bouchard L. Acetylsalicylic acid, aging and coronary artery disease are associated with ABCA1 DNA methylation in men. Clin Epigenetics. 2014 Jul 29;6(1):14. doi: 10.1186/1868–7083–6–14. PMID: 25093045; PMCID: PMC4120725 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25093045/

Lindqvist BM, Wingren S, Motlagh PB, Nilsson TK. Whole-genome DNA methylation signature of HER2-positive breast cancer. Epigenetics. 2014 Aug;9(8):1149–62. doi: 10.4161/epi.29632. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25089541; PMCID: PMC4164500. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25089541/

Pan Z, Zhu LJ, Li YQ, Hao LY, Yin C, Yang JX, Guo Y, Zhang S, Hua L, Xue ZY, Zhang H, Cao JL. Epigenetic modification of spinal miR-219 expression regulates chronic inflammation pain by targeting CaMKIIγ. J Neurosci. 2014 Jul 16;34(29):9476–83. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5346–13.2014. PMID: 25031391; PMCID: PMC6608325. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25031391/

Comstock, Craig K. The Nutritional Cost of Birth Control Pills. Huffpost.com. Published June 26, 2011. Retrieved online February 10, 2021. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/the-pill-and-what-else_b_877875

Cass, Dr. Hyla. A Practical Guide to Avoiding Drug-Induced Nutrient Depletion. NutritionReview.org. Published on December 11, 2016. Retrieved online February 10, 2021. https://nutritionreview.org/2016/12/practical-guide-avoiding-drug-induced-nutrient-depletion/

Parade, S.H., Ridout, K., Seifer, R., Armstrong, D.A., Marsit, C.J., McWilliams, M.A., & Tyrka, A.R. (2016). Methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter in preschoolers: Links with internalizing behavior problems. Child Development, 87, 86–97. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12484

Ridout, K.K., Parade, S.H., Kao, H.-T., Magnan, S., Seifer, R., Porton, B., Price, L.H., & Tyrka, A.R. (2019). Childhood maltreatment, behavioral adjustment, and molecular markers of cellular aging in preschool-aged children: A cohort study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 107, 261–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.05.015

Busnelli A, Lattuada D, Ferrari S, Reschini M, Colciaghi B, Somigliana E, Fedele L, Ferrazzi E. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Different Preeclampsia Clinical Phenotypes Development: A Pilot Study. Reprod Sci. 2019 Aug;26(8):1054–1061. doi: 10.1177/1933719118804410. Epub 2018 Oct 8. PMID: 30296910 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30296910/

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Victim of gang stalking & electronic torture. I write about feminism and gender difference. Email: TheSpeculumOfTheOther@yahoo.com

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Karen Barna

Karen Barna

Victim of gang stalking & electronic torture. I write about feminism and gender difference. Email: TheSpeculumOfTheOther@yahoo.com

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